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Canada will implement space-based ADS-B mandate in 2023

Canada will implement a new mandate requiring aircraft flying in Class A and B airspace above 12,500 feet to utilize ADS-B Out.ADS-B uses Global Navigation Satellite System technology to calculate an aircraft's location, speed, and direction. This information is then transmitted twice per second to give air traffic controllers a greater sense of situational awareness.A joint statement by NAV Canada and Transport Canada was made to announce the new mandate, which will go into effect on February 23, 2023.Space-based ADS-B expands surveillance to remote and terrain-blocked areasSpace-based ADS-B, a technology that provides 100 percent worldwide surveillance coverage to equipped aircraft, is already being used over the Hudson Bay, the North Atlantics, and in domestic airspace above 29,000 feet in Canada. NAV CANADA was the first air navigations service provider to implement space-based ADS-B in its domestic airspace.In December 2021, NAV CANADA began providing service to appropriately equipped aircraft below 29,000 feet in the Montreal Flight Information Region and plans to expand to the Edmonton and Winnipeg Flight Information Regions later this year, prior to the mandate going into effect in 2023.There will be a phased approach for implementing a mandate in Class C, D and E Canadian airspace. Implementation in these classes of airspace could begin as soon as 2026.Equipment requirements for space-based ADS-BTo take advantage of space-based ADS-B and to comply with the mandate, aircraft will need a transponder with ADS-B Out capability and an antenna able to broadcast out towards receivers emitting 1090 MHz Extended Squitter.This requirement can be met either through antenna diversity (the use of a top and bottom antenna) or with a single antenna that is capable of transmitting both towards the ground and up towards satellites. Bottom mount transponders alone are insufficient.Except for special situations such as search and rescue, MEDEVAC and law enforcement, aircraft that do not meet the equipage requirements could be denied entry into the airspace.How the Canadian ADS-B mandate differsIn the U.S., aircraft that operate in airspace that required a Mode C or Mode S transponder needed to be equipped with ADS-B Out by December 31, 2019. This includes most controlled airspace (Class A, B, C and parts of E).Above 18,000 feet MSL, 1090 Extended Squitter is required, whereas below 18,000 feet a provision was made to allow for the use of a 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). Outside U.S. airspace, almost all ADS-B systems operate on 1090 MHz.Aircraft equipped for compliance with the Canadian ADS-B Out mandate will also be compliant with the mandates in the United States and Europe. However, U.S. and European aircraft planning to fly into Canadian mandated airspace will need to meet the antenna requirements.
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